Human Rights and Terrorism: A Comparative Security Analysis. Understanding the Universality of Human Rights. The evolution of modern human rights regimes began roughly around the period of WWII and the establishment of the United Nations (UN). However, the concept of human rights has existed well prior to the UN and related institutions such as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) or the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Krasner characterises the evolution of rights as shifting from religious tolerance, to minority rights in its protection of specific ethnic groups, to its current form of universal human rights.
No human being can be excluded due to political, civil, cultural, or socioeconomic status, . We, the People of Earth, are fundamentally, self- evidently, equal. Historically, there has been tension due to North- South contrasts on the emphasis of different elements of HRL regimes. Seen in documents such as the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) and the United Kingdom’s Human Rights Act 1.
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 7; May 2014 183 Sustainable Conflict Management. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a constitutional federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal. African Union, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of the Recent Kenya and Zimbabwe Conflicts. Gmail is email that's intuitive, efficient, and useful. 15 GB of storage, less spam, and mobile access.
Western jurisdictions have largely realised the socio- political rights and freedoms outlined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Recognising the interdependence of socio- political and socioeconomic rights in the decades after the formal adoption of the ICESCR, Western governments moved towards more Keynesian forms of economic organisation. With the de- escalation of East- West tensions in the post- Cold War era, the emergence of neoliberal- neorealist intersections came to dominate foreign and domestic policy discourse. Neoliberal theorists such as Thomas Friedman, politicians such as Reagan and Thatcher, and the dominant . According to Cox and Gill, neoliberal internationalisation favours the interests of transnational and domestic business and political elite at the expense of state and individual actors, while undermining the capacity of emerging markets to .
In the early 1. 99. Oftentimes, these positions serve to justify human rights abuses and derogations by appropriating constructs of cultural relativism. Secretary of State Warren Christopher declared that, “we cannot let cultural relativism become that last refuge of repression.”. Current debates now focus on legitimate avenues of proliferating universal rights and determining the conditions whereby humanitarian intervention is justified. Democratic Endowment for Democracy. This serves to streamline the scope of investigative research and provide a more common theoretical and political reference point for comparative study. International Law and Non- derogable Rights.
International human rights regimes recognise that there may be times of national emergency or crisis necessitating the temporary suspension of and legitimate derogations from certain human rights protections. Piazza and Walsh define two sets of rights; .
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There is a marked overlap between HRL and IHL regimes, where immunity from torture, cruel and unusual punishment, the illegal infliction of death, or the violation of civilian immunity are collectively prohibited under the UDHR, ICCPR, Geneva Conventions, Genocide Convention and CAT. The US Patriot Act is often portrayed as inconsistent with international human rights norms, and has been criticised by major INGOs for its violation of civil and political liberties. The dichotomy between liberty- security has perpetuated inequality via an emergence of a Eurocentric in- group, out- group paradigm. These attitudes prevalent among the American polity only serve to normalise mistreatment of non- citizens, which in turn serves to breed radicalism and potential terrorism. Since 9/1. 1, human rights advocates in the U. S. 5. 1) of the UN Charter. Acts of terrorism are criminalised as purposeful, malicious, and premeditated acts of human rights violations, warranting separate legislation to enforce harsher punishments and more effective law enforcement powers within the criminal justice system.
Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyses violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending. Understanding the Universality of Human Rights. The evolution of modern human rights regimes began roughly around the period of WWII and the establishment of the. Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and Philly.com. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. Court of Appeals of Virginia Unpublished Opinions. These opinions are available as Adobe Acrobat PDF documents. The Adobe Acrobat Viewer (free from Adobe) allows you.
The liberty- security . Lethal force must only be used as a last resort, and with full regard to international law and non- derogable rights. The state’s pre- commitment to human rights principles serve to purposefully restrict its behaviour, thus providing guarantees that certain rights and freedoms are absolute and non- derogable during both peacetime and in war.
Eurocentric notions of sovereign state- hood underpin the foundations of inter- state affairs. During the period of European colonisation. This may extend to the violation of human rights through forms of otherisation, and the assumption of a taken- for- granted moral imperative to impose a . Democratic Peace Theory (DPT) purports that liberal democracies are less likely to go to war with each other given the internal organisation of the state. In Immanuel Kant’s essay, Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch, he asserts, “Republican states . Liberal institutionalism legitimates domination and coercion of the Global South. Where the West are modern and flexible, and the Orient slaves to ancient passions and routines.
Where the West are honest and compassionate, and the Orient treacherous and uncultivated. The Holocaust represents a monumental test of liberal faith in the “Western myths of progress and ethical superiority”.
Our enemy slaughters thousands of civilians by targeting buildings like the World Trade Centre; they sacrifice women and children to do their evil bidding; they run and hide in remote locations plotting suicide attacks; they target our soldiers for kidnap, ransom, torture and death; they fight for the illegitimate control of territory protected by our friendly troops at the invitation of their rightful government. We obey the rules of law; and they commit unspeakable crimes. If so, they deserve the same fate as those in Nuremburg and Tokyo.
In our enlightened minds, we should provide them with the fundamental rights they so unjustly denied their victims. The competent judiciary International Criminal Court (ICC). Western occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq has not only resulted in civilian death tolls far exceeding those under Saddam Hussein’s regime and the Taliban, but also a level of state failure consistently ranked among the bottom 2. The state of civil and political rights. Neoconservative apologists can rest easy though, as Afghanistan and Iraq have now been installed with new . Notwithstanding blatant realist or neo- neo- driven interests, the inherent Eurocentric assumptions of moral superiority in certain liberal mindsets feed into a cycle of “taken- for- granted politics that sides with the rulers, with the powerful, with the imperialists, and not with the downtrodden, the weak, the colonised, or the post- colonised”. In his essay, Two Treatises of Government, John Locke affirmed the .
These were not bloodless conflicts, where wigged men bid their opponents . These and other revolutionary conflicts in the West were bloody, violent, brutal, and involved asymmetric warfare, where unarmed civilians and non- combatants were killed, raped, plundered, beaten and tortured in the most barbaric fashion. Acts of terrorism systematically employ violence and intimidation to “coerce a government or community into acceding to specific political demands”. It aims to influence “ideological and political factors in order to impose its own model of society”. State complicity in acts of terrorism have been recognised as a “denial of justice” defined as “assistance” to, “acquiescence” in, “encouragement” of, or “toleration” of terrorist conduct. Acts of terror aim to maximise civilian casualties, thereby violating the fundamental rights to life, liberty and security of their victims.
Given the use of lethal force (i. Sovereignty endows states with great power and greater responsibility. This includes the responsibility to protect civilians from human rights abuses; the responsibility to deny terrorists safe haven; and the responsibility to regulate the conduct of one’s military forces. It takes a true leap of double- plus good- think to master the American justification of pre- emptively killing civilians with no regard to international law in a geographic limitless manner to stop the killing of civilians with no regard to international law in a geographic limitless manner.? Why do People support these illegitimate actors?
Why do 6. 2% of Palestinian Muslims. The death of civilians cannot be justified, and drives those we are supposed to be helping to the causes of terror groups. A person is equal to a person is equal to a person. The threat of human insecurity, irrespective of geography, represents a threat to international and domestic security. The non- derogability of these rights is absolute.
The U. S. Counter- terrorism strategies must be reconciled to reflect the practice of our purported values. However, it has raised significant questions about Eurocentric notions of terrorism, and the source of supposedly illegitimate violence. Rather than dehumanising the ? Barnard, Ian. 1/2 (2. Bennett, Brian T. Bilgin, Pinar. Third World Quarterly 2. Bugnion, Fran. 1 (2.
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